ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA TOMUS 42 (A MTA RÉGÉSZETI KÖZLEMÉNYEI, 1990)

42. kötet / 1-4. sz. - M. KELEMEN: Roman Amphorae in Pannonia III.

10* M. KELEMEN ROMAN AMPHORAE IN PANNÓNIA III Nine types of Roman Pannonian amphorae will be discussed. The exact origin of fruit amphora type 14. is unclear but it is probably from the area of the Mediterranian. Types 15., 16 and 17 are Hispanie saucen amphorae, while the Baetican oil amphora including types 18, and 19. is most probably also of Hispanie origin. It is not known where type 20. came from. Types 21. and 22. are wine amphorae from the Aegean. TYPE 14. (Pornpei XV.) The most characteristic feature of the form is the carrot-shaped body. There are two varieties in terms of the outline of the rim and the belly. — In the first variety the rim is thickened in to a ring-shape, and often rectangular. This variety lacks a neck with the elongated body beginning right under the rim, and bulging at the shoulder. The body then sharply narrows under the handles, ending in a rounded base. At the widest point on the shoulder there are two short handles. — The rim of the other variety slants slightly outwards. It has a short vaulted neck. The belly runs towards the base, with a slight vault, under the handles. The body of both varieties is, in most cases, densely grooved over the whole surface or with the exception of the lower quarter. The small handles are usually placed horizontally, though in some cases they dend upwards. The colour is generally red or brownish-red although yellowish­bro n or greyish specimens may also be found. The clay is always tempered by sand and most of the pieces have rough surfaces. Their height varies between 30 to 60 cm, the most characteristic size being about 40 cm. On the basis of the measurements, it must have had a small capacity and the sizes were accordingly variable. The largest could contain about one liter and the smaller ones half a liter of liquid. A 48,5 cm high vessel (Horath) has a capacity of exactly 870 cm3. The content cannot be determined with certainty however, the form and size of the vessels suggest fruit rather than wine while the small size indicates that they were used for tropical fruit transportation. The origin of the form is not yet known although it seems to come from the Mediterranian. The shape and position of the handle reveal that it must have come from the same territory as amphora type Almagro 54 (see type 26). They were used from the Claudian period until the first half of the 2nd century. Data concerning the amphora and the list of sites where it was found has been compiled by W. Reusch.1 The oldest known item is Pompei form XV.2 with red painting on the lower part of the shoulder and the as yet not understood letters KVF.3 1 REUSCH 1970, 54—62. 2 CIL IV, Taf. 1., XV.; BELTRAN-LLORIS 1970, 537, Fig. 219,5.; REUSCH 1970, 54, Abb. 2. 1. 3 CIL IV, 2834. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42, 1990 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

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